Science does not rely on authority as an indicator of truth.

Ben Goldacre: Battling bad science


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It is worth reiterating that contrary to popular depictions of science, science does not rely on authority as an indicator of truth.

The video reminds me of an xkcd comic showing the problem with using statistical significance if the studies showing no effect are unreported.

Significant
In this analogy, the study showing a link between green jelly beans and acne has only a 5% probability (or less) of being a coincidence (p < 0.05). This would be convincing evidence that there is a link between green jelly beans and acne, except all the 19 studies showing no link between non-green jelly beans and acne were unreported and discarded. If all the study results were reported, then it would suggest that the result of the green-jelly-bean study is indeed a coincidence: 1/20 = 5%.

Scientific studies in real life can be even worse. Companies, and even university researchers, are not obligated to publish studies in which the results show no effect (studies with “null results”). This means that researchers can run the hypothetical green-jelly-bean study 20 times until they get the result that they want, by coincidence. What normally happens does not involve ill intent, but has the same effect. The hypothetical green-jelly-bean study is run independently by 20 different research teams (who can be separated by time), who are unaware of each other, because studies with negative results are not published. Only the group with the positive result publishes its results, but the result is actually a coincidence. See the concept of publication bias at Wikipedia.
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White Canadians earn more, because they have white privilege.

White Canadians earn more than non-white Canadians, even when comparing only the whites and non-whites with the same education and of the same age. Comparing only the foreign-born white Canadians with the foreign-born non-white Canadians, white people earn more. Comparing only the second-generation, Canadian-born white Canadians with the second-generation, Canadian-born non-white Canadians, white people still earn more.

In other words, even when controlling for age, education, and generation, white Canadians earn more than non-white Canadians. Racial appearance causes the difference in earnings.

Wellesley Institute’s study, Canada’s Colour Coded Labour Market, was released in March 2011 and draws on data from the last mandatory long-form Census (which has been cancelled recently by the politically-conservative Harper government):

THE LAST AVAILABLE CENSUS DATA before the federal government cancelled the country’s mandatory long form Census reveals a troubling trend in Canada.

Despite years of unprecedented economic growth and an increasingly diverse population, this report confirms what so many Canadians have experienced in real life: a colour code is still at work in Canada’s labour market.

Racialized Canadians encounter a persistent colour code that blocks them from the best paying jobs our country has to offer.

[…]

Default explanations like “it takes a while for immigrants to integrate” don’t bear out. Even when you control for age and education, the data show first generation racialized Canadian men earn only 68.7% of what non-racialized first-generation Canadian men earn, indicating a colour code is firmly at play in the labour market. Here, the gender gap — at play throughout the spectrum — becomes disturbingly large: Racialized women immigrants earn only 48.7 cents for every dollar non-racialized male immigrants earn.

The colour code persists for second generation Canadians with similar education and age. The gap narrows, with racialized women making 56.5 cents per dollar non-racialized men earn; while racialized men earn 75.6 cents for every dollar non-racialized men in this cohort earn.

Further Reading:


Related posts:

White Americans did NOT elect Obama.

This myth won’t die:

But not everyone buys that script. Mona Charen, a conservative columnist for the National Review, challenges that view with this question: If more white Americans feel like an embattled minority, why did they elect President Barack Obama?

“Did they become racist after electing the first black president?” she asks.

Charen says the United States today is “incredibly tolerant and open.”

White Americans did not elect Obama. Most White Americans (55%) voted for McCain. Obama was elected by most Americans of color and a minority (43%) of White Americans.

Yes, the numbers can and do work like that.

Map of Recent Immigrants in Toronto: 1981 versus 2006

For these maps, “recent immigrants” are those who arrived in Canada within the last five years of the Census date. You can click on the maps to see larger versions.

1981

Toronto CMA. Recent immigration population in 1981 Census by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs).

2006

Toronto CMA. Recent immigration population in 2006 Census by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs).

Via Recent immigrant population from 1981 to 2006 Census by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs) by Statistics Canada.


Related post:

Map of White Segregation/Enclaves in Toronto

Statistics Canada has a “thematic” map of the percentage of visible minorities in Toronto CMA (Census Metropolitan Area) in 2006. You can click on the map below to see a larger version. Generally, the lighter areas are where the whites live.

Toronto CMA. Percentage of Visible Minorities by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs). Map 2 of 2.

Toronto is a multi-racial city with a marshmallow centre (or two). The suburbs surrounding Toronto have a greater percentage of visible minorities, while large patches of Toronto’s core have been gentrified are inhabited by whites.

Note that some areas of Toronto are whiter than the national average, over 90% white.

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